Handling constraints

How to handle constraints?

A constraint is a logic formula defining allowed combinations of values for a set of variables, i.e., restrictions over variables that must be respected in order to get a feasible solution. A constraint is equipped with a (set of) filtering algorithm(s), named propagator(s). A propagator removes, from the domains of the target variables, values that cannot correspond to a valid combination of values. A solution of a problem is a variable-value assignment verifying all the constraints.

Constraint can be declared in extension, by defining the valid/invalid tuples, or in intension, by defining a relation between the variables. For a given requirement, there can be several constraints/propagators available. A widely used example is the AllDifferent constraint which ensures that all its variables take a distinct value in a solution. Such a rule can be formulated using :

  • a clique of basic inequality constraints,

  • a generic table constraint (an extension constraint that lists the valid tuples),

  • a dedicated global constraint analysing :

    • instantiated variables (Forward checking propagator),

    • variable domain bounds (Bound consistency propagator),

    • variable domains (Arc consistency propagator).

Depending on the problem to solve, the efficiency of each option may be dramatically different. In general, we tend to use global constraints, that capture a good part of the problem structure. However, these constraints often model problems that are inherently NP-complete so only a partial filtering is performed in general, to keep polynomial time algorithms. This is for example the case of NValue constraint that one aspect relates to the problem of “minimum hitting set.”

Design choices

Class organization

In Choco-solver, constraints are generally not associated with a specific java class. Instead, each constraint is associated with a specific method in Model that will build a generic Constraint with the right list of propagators. Each propagator is associated with a unique java class.

Note that it is not required to manipulate propagators, but only constraints. However, one can define specific constraints by defining combinations of existing and/or home-made propagators.

Solution checking

The satisfaction of the constraints is done on each solution by calling the isSatisfied() method of every constraint. By default, this method checks the isEntailed() method of each of its propagators.

List of available constraints

Please refer to the javadoc of Model to have the complete list of available constraints.

Posting constraints

To be effective, a constraint must be posted to the solver. This is achieved using the post() method:


Otherwise, if the post() method is not called, the constraint will not be taken into account during the solution process : it may not be satisfied in solutions.

Reifying constraints

In Choco-solver, it is possible to reify any constraint. Reifying a constraint means associating it with a BoolVar to represent whether or not the constraint is satisfied :

BoolVar b = constraint.reify();


BoolVar b = model.boolVar();

Reifying a constraint means that we allow the constraint not to be satisfied. Therefore, the reified constraint should not be posted. For instance, let us consider “if x<0 then y>42”:


Such constraint states that if x takes a value strictly less than 0 then y should take a value stritctly greater than 42. Conversely, if x takes a value greater or equal to 0 then y is not restricted.