Declaring variables

How to declare variables?

A variable is an unknown, mathematically speaking. The goal of a resolution is to assign a value to each variable. The domain of a variable –(super)set of values it may take– must be defined in the model.

Choco-solver includes several types of variables: BoolVar, IntVar, SetVar and RealVar. Variables are created using the Model object. When creating a variable, the user can specify a name to help reading the output.

Integer variables

An integer variable is an unknown whose value should be an integer. Therefore, the domain of an integer variable is a set of integers (representing possible values). To create an integer variable, the Model should be used:

// Create a constant variable equal to 42
IntVar v0 = model.intVar("v0", 42);
// Create a variable taking its value in [1, 3] (the value is 1, 2 or 3)
IntVar v1 = model.intVar("v1", 1, 3);
// Create a variable taking its value in {1, 3} (the value is 1 or 3)
IntVar v2 = model.intVar("v2", new int[]{1, 3});

It is then possible to build directly arrays and matrices of variables having the same initial domain with:

// Create an array of 5 variables taking their value in [-1, 1]
IntVar[] vs = model.intVarArray("vs", 5, -1, 1);
// Create a matrix of 5x6 variables taking their value in [-1, 1]
IntVar[][] vs = model.intVarMatrix("vs", 5, 6, -1, 1);

There exists different ways to encode the domain of an integer variable: bounded domain or enumerated domain.

Bounded domain

When the domain of an integer variable is said to be bounded, it is represented through an interval of the form $[\![a,b]\!]$ where $a$ and $b$ are integers such that $a \leq b$. This representation is pretty light in memory (it requires only two integers) but it cannot represent holes in the domain. For instance, if we have a variable whose domain is $[\![0,10]\!]$ and a constraint enables to detect that values 2, 3, 7 and 8 are infeasible, then this learning will be lost as it cannot be encoded in the domain (which remains the same). However, whenever the values 9 and 10 are removed from the variable’s domain, the upper bound of the variable will be set to 6 by such a constraint.

To specify you want to use bounded domains, set the boundedDomain argument to true when creating variables:

IntVar v = model.intVar("v", 1, 12, true);

Enumerated domains

When the domain of an integer variable is said to be enumerated, it is represented through the set of possible values, in the form:

  • $[\![a,b]\!]$ where $a$ and $b$ are integers such that $a \leq b$
  • ${a,b,c,..,z}$, where $a < b < c … < z$. Enumerated domains provide more information than bounded domains but are heavier in memory (the domain usually requires a bitset).

To specify you want to use enumerated domains, either set the boundedDomain argument to false when creating variables by specifying two bounds or use the signature that specifies the array of possible values:

IntVar v = model.intVar("v", 1, 4, false);
IntVar v = model.intVar("v", new int[]{1,2,3,4});

Boolean variable

Boolean variables, BoolVar, are specific IntVar that take their value in $[\![0,1]\!]$. The avantage of BoolVar is twofold:

  • They can be used to say whether or not constraint should be satisfied (reification)
  • Their domain, and some filtering algorithms, are optimized

To create a new boolean variable:

BoolVar b = model.boolVar("b");

Set variables

A set variable, SetVar, represents a set of integers, i.e. its value is a set of integers. Its domain is defined by a set interval $[\![m,o]\!]$ where:

  • the lower bound, $m$, is an ISet object which contains integers that figure in every solution.

  • the upper bound, $o$, is an ISet object which contains integers that potentially figure in at least one solution,

Initial values for both $m$ and $o$ should be such that $m \subseteq o$. Then, decisions and filtering algorithms will remove integers from $o$ and add some others to $m$. A set variable is instantiated if and only if $m = o$.

A set variable can be created as follows:

// Constant SetVar equal to {2,3,12}
SetVar x = model.setVar("x", new int[]{2,3,12});

// SetVar representing a subset of {1,2,3,5,12}
SetVar y = model.setVar("y", new int[]{}, new int[]{1,2,3,5,12});
// possible values: {}, {2}, {1,3,5} ...

// SetVar representing a superset of {2,3} and a subset of {1,2,3,5,12}
SetVar z = model.setVar("z", new int[]{2,3}, new int[]{1,2,3,5,12});
// possible values: {2,3}, {2,3,5}, {1,2,3,5} ...

Real variables

The domain of a real variable is an interval of doubles. Conceptually, the value of a real variable is a double. However, it uses a precision parameter for floating number computation, so its actual value is generally an interval of doubles, whose size is constrained by the precision parameter. Real variables have a specific status in Choco 4, which uses Ibex solver to define constraints.

A real variable is declared with three doubles defining its bound and a precision:

RealVar x = model.realVar("x", 0.2d, 3.4d, 0.001d);

Views: Creating variables from constraints

When a variable is defined as a function of another variable, views can be used to make the model shorter. In some cases, the view has a specific (optimized) domain representation. Otherwise, it is simply a modeling shortcut to create a variable and post a constraint at the same time.

Arithmetical views

An arithmetical view requires an integer variable.

$x = y + 2$ :

IntVar x = model.intOffsetView(y, 2);

$x = -y$ :

IntVar x = model.intMinusView(y);

$x = 3\times y$ :

IntVar x = model.intScaleView(y, 3);

Logical views

A logical view is based on an integer variable, a basic arithmetical relation ($=,\neq,\leq,\geq$) and a constant. The resulting view states whether or not the relation holds.

$b \Leftrightarrow (x = 4)$ :

BoolVar x = model.intEqView(x, 4);

$b \Leftrightarrow (x \neq 4)$ :

BoolVar x = model.intNeView(x, 4);

$b \Leftrightarrow (x \leq 4)$ :

BoolVar x = model.intLeView(x, 4);

$b \Leftrightarrow (x \geq 4)$ :

BoolVar x = model.intGeView(x, 4);

$d \Leftrightarrow \neg b$

This is a specific case, related to the negation of a BoolVar. No additional variable is needed, a view based on the variable to refute is enough.

BoolVar d = model.boolNotView(b);


Views can be combined together, e.g. $x = 2\times y + 5$ is:

IntVar x = model.intOffsetView(model.intScaleView(y,2),5);

View over real variable

We can also use a view mecanism to link an integer variable with a real variable.

IntVar ivar = model.intVar("i", 0, 4);
double precision = 0.001d;
RealVar rvar = model.realIntView(ivar, precision);

This code enables to embed an integer variable in a constraint that is defined over real variables.